2 edition of effect of forest cover on local precipitation found in the catalog.
effect of forest cover on local precipitation
James P. King
Written in English
|Statement||by James P. King.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||21 leaves, bound ;|
|Number of Pages||21|
Forest ecologists concentrate on forest patterns and processes, usually with the aim of elucidating cause-and-effect relationships. Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social, and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders. (DJF) temperatures greater than 1 C, forest cover reduces snow duration by 1–2 weeks compared to adjacent open areas. This occurs because the dominant effect of forest cover shifts from slowing snowmelt by shading the snow and blocking the wind to accelerating snowmelt from increasing longwave radiation. In many locations, midwinter melt removes. This paper aims to study the effects of vegetation on runoff and sediment transport at the watershed scale, and to provide a theoretical basis for afforestation in the Loess area, in the nested Caijiachuan watershed, Jixian County, Shanxi Province of west China. Forest watersheds and farmland watersheds with similar terrain features were selected through cluster analysis to Cited by: 3.
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Average annual precipitation has increased by inches, with the greatest increases in the summer and fall. There is variation across the state, with some areas experiencing significant droughts. The interaction of temperature, precipitation, and seasonality is important to forests.
Heavy rainfall events (+3 inches in a single event) have File Size: 1MB. Forests influence climate change mainly by affecting the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. When forests grow, carbon is removed from the atmosphere and absorbed in wood, leaves and soil.
Because forests can absorb and store carbon over an extended period of time, they are considered “carbon sinks”. This carbon remains stored in the forest ecosystem, but.
Effects of Rainfall, Vegetation, and Microtopography on Infiltration and Runoff Article (PDF Available) in Water Resources Research 27(9) September with 3, Reads. Secondly, some numerical simulations which has imaginary land cover (forest is changed into paddy field) are carried out on 15th Aug.
and it is found that transportation of water vapor by local circulation induced by heating from the land surface is more important for the precipitation than evaporation from the land : Kazuyoshi Souma, Kenji Tanaka, Eiichi Nakakita, Shuichi Ikebuchi.
This article traces the history of scientific ideas connecting forest cover with rainfall to inform ongoing debates about whether forests are net users or producers of water in the hydrological cycle. Scholars of the supply-side school argue that forests are net producers and magnifiers that increase rainfall at regional scales.
Supply-side scholars seek to challenge the Cited by: 4. Tropical forests provide many ecosystem and climatic services. This Review provides a synthesis of the effects of tropical deforestation on climate and implications for agriculture, both in the.
relationships between forests and weather worldwide, and highlight how they relate to Europe. Secondly, to synthesize current understanding of the main drivers of forest-weather relationships, the processes through which these interactions occur, and the factors that may threaten Size: 1MB.
Forests currently cover only about one third of Earth’s surfaces ().Between tourban expansion, agricultural land conversions, logging and forest fires resulted in the loss of some – million km 2 of tree cover, or approximately % of global forest cover (DeFries et al.,Hansen et al.,Riitters et al., ), and vastly more loss has occurred throughout Cited by: Result revealed changes in land use/ land cover features between andas bare surface recorded % change, built up areas increased by % and also farm lands increased to In Brazil's Atlantic Forest just such a correlation has been detected between reduced tree cover and increased local interannual variation in rainfall (Webb et al.
New investigations Makarieva and Gorshkov's hypothesis has implications for many different by: A growing body of evidence indicates that the continuing destruction of tropical forests is disrupting the movement of water in the atmosphere, causing major shifts in precipitation that could lead to drought in key agricultural areas in China, India, and the U.S.
Midwest. By Fred Pearce • J Every tree in the forest is a fountain. The influence of forest vegetation on water and soil. WILM Associate Dean, State University College of Forestry, Syracuse, New York As a feature of its current program of work, the Forestry Division of FAO is preparing for publication a study on the influence of the forest on water, soil and climate, and their bearing on land-use policy.
Climate Change Effects on Forest 1. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON FORESTS Challenges & Opportunities Maria Janowiak, [email protected] 2. Climate Change Impacts 1) Warmer temperatures 2) Increased carbon dioxide 3) Changes in habitat suitability 4) Extreme events 5) Interactions 3.
Different values have been attributed to the forest in augmenting rainfall. Thus Kittredge () asserted that forest increased rainfall by 3%, 1% due to the trees of 30 m or higher obstructing air movement and 2% due to the effect of the friction of the canopy.
Schubert's () figure for Germany was 6%. In effect, forest harvest changes the snowmelt hydro- graph from one peak to two, with the first peak coming from the harvested openings and the second peak from the remaining mature forest.
As the proportion of the harvested area within a watershed increases (e.g., greater than ~70 percent open), snowmelt occurs ear- lier and at a more rapid rate. Precipitation is greatest in the SW corner, which is closest to the lakes and to the Gulf.
High upland areas, like the uplands near Gaylord and the Huron Mountains, get more precipitation due to high amounts of lake effect snow in winter. Low. The local level is where deforestation has the most immediate effect.
With forest loss, the local community loses the system that performed valuable but often under-appreciated services like ensuring the regular flow of clean water and protecting the community from flood and drought.
The forest acts as a sort of sponge, soaking up rainfall. Effects of forest cover and environmental variables on snow accumulation and melt Mariana Dobre, William J.
Elliot, Joan Q. Wu, Timothy E. Link, Ina S. Miller Abstract The goal of this study was to assess the effects of topography and forest cover resulting from different treatments on snow accumulation and melt in small.
The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2 mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire Cited by: 6.
Background Enhancing water provision services is a common target in forest restoration projects worldwide due to growing concerns over freshwater scarcity. However, whether or not forest cover expansion or restoration can improve water provision services is still unclear and highly disputed.
Purpose The goal of this review is to provide a balanced and impartial assessment of the Cited by: How Does Deforestation Affect Climate Change. Deforestation is an important factor in global climate is well known that deforestation is a big problem in the world today, with hundreds and even thousands of vulnerable forest being cut down both for tinder and to make way for arable farmland for cows and other livestock.
The physiological effect enhances forest cover over drier regions, such as the tundra, the western United States, the Sahel, and Australia. These two forcings combined, in ensemble RP, lead to a poleward shift of the boreal forest, depletion of Amazon forest cover, and increased forest cover over the Sahel and western United by: Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies 5 deforestation are maintained.
Indeed some 31 countries do not even make the list because they have already removed most of their forests and even if that remain are seriously fragmented and degraded.
The changes in area of forest by region and subregion are shown in table Size: KB. The change from forest cover to bare ground leads to more heat and drought, he says. More than half the country used to be forested; it's now less than 2 : Judith D.
Schwartz. Our results show that wetter years facilitate larger differences in evapotranspiration between land cover types, increasing the effect of forest cover on river flow.
However, the effect of forest establishment on annual river flow is less sensitive to variable annual precipitation when the catchment is : Laura Bentley, David A.
Coomes. The Effect of Climate Change on Water Resources and Programs Introduction The goal of this module is to educate water program managers, as well as the general public, on the expected effects of climate change on water resources and water programs.
This knowledge will help us to prepare for and adapt to the effects of climate change. Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use.
The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.
Hydrologic Effects of a Changing Forest Landscape Of all the outputs of forests, water may be the most important—streamflow from forests provides two-thirds of the nation’s clean water supply. Removing forest cover accelerates the rate that precipitation becomes streamflow; therefore, in some areas, cutting trees causes a temporaryFile Size: 1MB.
This volume contains papers presented at a NATO Advanced Research Institute, sponsored by their Eco-Sciences Panel, on "The effects of acid precipitation on vegetation and soils," held at Toronto, Canada from MayThe organizing expenses and greater part of the expenses of the speakersBrand: Springer US.
The Watershed Perspective Each type of land use has a varying effect on the hydrologic cycle, thereby affecting the people and the natural resources on a landscape.A watershed perspective can be used to scientifically study the effect of land uses on water and downstream ecosystems.A watershed is defined as a topographically delineated area drained by a stream system; that.
Local and regional consequences of deforestation. The local level is where deforestation has the most immediate effect. With forest loss, the local community loses the system that performed valuable but often under-appreciated services like ensuring the regular flow of clean water and protecting the community from flood and drought.
The impact of vegetation on erosion rates is hard to gauge. Although vegetation can hold soils in place mechanically, root systems can also loosen soils or even help to fracture rock. These processes can increase erosion, especially because areas of heavy vegetation tend to be in areas with high precipitation rates.
Starke et al. tackled this issue using a large set of Author: J. Starke, T. Ehlers, M. Schaller. Coefficients in the best models indicate sensitivities of fall dormancy dates to changes of environmental conditions. Dormancy dates for the deciduous forest communities in the two eco-regions showed different sensitivities to environmental variation (Table 2).We found that deciduous forests in the NH were more sensitive to changes of latitude (i.e., photoperiod), Cited by: Over the past 40 years, south-central Chile has experienced important land-use-induced land cover changes, with massive conversion from native forests (NF) to Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.
exotic forest plantations (FP). Several case studies have related this conversion to a reduction in water supply within small catchments (< ha). In this work, we explore Cited by: 4.
CONTENTS FOREWORD vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY x KEY MESSAGES xiv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 2 TRENDS IN LAND-USE CHANGE 7 Key messages 8 Introduction 10 A global history of forest conversion 10 Twenty-first century land-use change dynamics 12 Drivers of.
The Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald, pronounced [ˈʃvaʁtsvalt]) is a large, forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest is bounded by the Rhine valley to the west and south.
Its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1, metres (4, ft) above sea region is roughly oblong in shape, with a length of kilometres ( State: Baden-Württemberg.
Trees make our lives more pleasant. They're beautiful to look at, and they can provide shade or a good s cover 30 percent of our planet, concentrated mostly in 10 countries: the United States, Canada, the Russian Federation, Brazil, China, Australia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Peru and India [source: United Nations Environment Programme].Author: Maria Trimarchi.
Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept, retain and transpire precipitation. Instead of trapping precipitation, which then percolates to groundwater systems, deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff, which moves much faster than subsurface flows.
As compared to –, when forest damages were in progress, accumulation of NH 4 + –N in snow during the winter of – decreased at an average of times, NO 3 − –N — more than twice and SO 4 2– –S even by 19 times ().A considerable decrease in the SO 4 2– –S content may account not only for the above-mentioned reduced production rate, but also for Cited by: During the period –, between 42% and 68% of the global land surface was altered through human activities such as cropland and pasture expansion and wood harvest (Hurtt et al.
).These land-use/land-cover changes can affect the energy and water exchange between the land surface and atmosphere, thereby impacting the climate at regional and Cited by: 9. Microclimate. Even in the complete absence of vegetation, major climatic forces, or macroclimates, are expressed differently at a very local spatial level, which has resulted in the recognition of so-calledthe surface of the ground undergoes the greatest daily variation in temperature, and daily thermal flux is progressively reduced with both .Effect of Precipitation Shifts.
Effect of Forest Disturbances. With all of the direct effects of global warming on temperate forests, some serious indirect effects exist as well.
Just as certain species will be forced to emigrate because of the new conditions, invasive tree and animal species will have to immigrate to the temperate forests.Rain is liquid precipitation: water falling from the sky.
Raindrops fall to Earth when clouds become saturated, or filled, with water droplets. Millions of water droplets bump into each other as they gather in a cloud.
When a small water droplet bumps into a bigger one, it condenses, or combines, with the larger one. As this continues to happen, the droplet gets heavier and heavier.